Ontologies are for annotating data, enhancing searchability, and encoding knowledge SPARC produces. Some custom extensions are made specifically for SPARC.


EMAPA, an extensive ontology of mouse anatomical terms, has been developed in order to represent both developmental and postnatal mouse anatomy in a standardized and searchable format.


Foundational Model of Anatomy ontology (FMA) is an evolving computer-based knowledge source for biomedical informatics

Gene Ontology

The Gene Ontology (GO) knowledge base is the world’s largest source of information on the functions of genes. This knowledge is both human-readable and machine-readable, and is a foundation for computational analysis of large-scale molecular biology and genetics experiments in biomedical research.

SAWG InterLex

SAWG InterLex. The SPARC Anatomy Working Group (SAWG) is responsible for the integrity of anatomical knowledge in SPARC. This site provides access to the data generated by the SAWG which includes links to documentation about vocabulary services, term request and connectivity.

NIFSTD Ontology

The NIFSTD ontology provides the backbone of the SPARC vocabularies.


SciGraph SciGraph is an open-source Neo4J ontology store that serves the SPARC vocabularies and will house the SPARC Knowledge Graph.

SPARC Knowledge Graph


UBERON is a multi-species anatomy ontology.